A cyst is a structure on the skin that looks like a closed like sac, it is not a normal part of the tissue where it is seen. It is membranous tissue that contains fluid, air, or other kinds of substances. Often, they look more like blisters. The sac is filled with pus.
Cyst occurs anywhere and to anyone regards of age, background, religion, skin colour. They can be so tiny that can only be seen under a microscope; be so large that they displace normal organs and tissues; they vary in size. Often, most Cysts are asymptomatic and have no signs to indicate their development.
Causes of Cyst
Many things cause the formation of a cyst. The major ones are:
• Genetic conditions.
• Cellular defects.
• Chronic inflammatory conditions.
• Errors in embryonic development.
• Blockages of ducts in the body.
Types of Cyst
There are several types of Cyst, but I will be writing about a few of them
1. Epidermoid Cyst: these are small, benign (not harmful) bumps filled with protein keratin (yellowish sebum). They lead to swelling of the skin.
2. Sebaceous Cyst: this is the type of cyst that occurs on the skin, face, scalp, scrotum or back. They are filled with sebum. They often form within the sebaceous gland which is part of the skin and hair follicles. The sebaceous gland provides oil for your skin, if it gets blocked or ruptured, it can lead to a sebaceous cyst.
3. Breast Cyst: when fluid gather around your breast glands. It is likely a benign cyst develop around your breast. They either cause pain or tenderness in the affected region. They must be well examined to ensure that they are benign cysts and not another kind of growth. They usually occur during the menstrual cycle and often disappear on their own. They most occur to women who are in their 30s and 40s.
4. Ganglion Cyst: occurs most times along a tendon sheath near the joint. They form around the joint area around your wrist or hand and can develop around your feet and ankles as well. They are harmless and the reason for formation is unknown. It is common in women than men.
5. Pilonidal Cyst: these forms at the top part of the buttocks (tailbone or lower back). They are filled with hair, body oils, skin debris etc. They are caused when loose hair is embedded in your skin. When it is chronic, they increase the risk of skin cancer that is called Squamous cell carcinoma. They can grow in a cluster thus creating a cavity or hole in the skin. They are also called jeep driver’s diseases.
6. Ovarian Cyst: this form when the follicle meant to release the egg does not open causing fluid build-up and forming a cyst. It can also be that the follicle releases the egg then closes improperly and collects fluid. It is common in women that have a regular period. It forms during ovulation. They cause no symptoms. If they occur after menopause, they increase the risk of cancer.
These are the remaining types of Cyst
1. Pilar Cyst
2. Mucous Cyst
3. Perineural (Tarlov) Cyst
4. Cystic Acne
5. Baker Cyst
6. Branchial Cyst
Symptoms of Cyst
Most of the small Cyst don’t show symptoms or signs of development as mentioned earlier, even at this some of them can very painful. The cysts that are associated with the internal organs might not show any sign if they are small, but if they are large and they if they compress or displace other organs or if they block the normal flow of fluid in the tissue like the pancreas, liver or another organ, then pain is inevitable and other symptoms that are related to those organs may develop.
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