Fibroids: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Fibroids, these are tumors which are made of connective tissues that are fibrous, but are smooth muscle cells. They can also be said to be abnormal growth developed either inside the woman uterus or on the uterus. It is also known as Leiomyomas, Myomas, Uterine Myomas, Fibromas.

About 70 to 80 percent of women develop fibroids during their lifetime, though not everyone will develop symptoms or require treatment.

One important characteristic of fibroid is that they are almost always benign or non-cancerous. Fibroids grow at different rates, according to broad studies, even when a woman has more than one. They can range from the size of a pea to the size of a watermelon.

Other important facts about fibroids includes that fibroids are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract. They are common from age 30 to the age when menopause begin.

Causes of fibroid

The main cause of fibroid is not known, but studies have shown and demonstrated there may be a genetic trigger. There is no definite external exposure that a woman can have that causes her to develop fibroids.


It remains unclear exactly what causes fibroids. Their developments may be linked with the person’s estrogen levels. During a person’s reproductive years, estrogen and progesterone levels are higher. When the estrogen levels are high, especially during pregnancy, fibroids tend to swell.

Family history

Fibroids may run in the family. If your mother, sister, or grandmother has a history of this condition, you may develop it as well.


Pregnancy increases the production of estrogen and progesterone in your body. Fibroids may develop and grow rapidly while you’re pregnant.

Symptoms of fibroids

This can also be classified as signs and symptoms of fibroids. They include:

1. Heavy vaginal bleeding

2. Pelvic discomfort

3. Pelvic pain

4. Bladder problems

5. Low back pain

6. Rectal pressure

7. Discomfort or pain with sexual intercourse

Types of fibroids


There are four main types of fibroids

1. Intramural fibroids: they are the commonest type of fibroid. This appears in the muscular wall of the uterus. They have the tendency to grow large and stretch the womb.

2. Subserosal fibroids: This grows outside of the uterus. They arelikely to grow large enough to make one side of the womb look larger than another side.

3. Pedunculated fibroids: forms when the subserosal fibroids develops a stem i.e., a slender base supporting the tumor. When this happens, a pedunculated fibroid grows.

4. Submucosal fibroids: are the least common type of fibroid. Submucosal fibroids grow in the myometrium, or middle layer of the muscle in the uterus.

Diagnosis of Fibroids

The following tests helps a doctor detect fibroids

1. Ultrasound (High frequency sound waves) Scans: this is done by either inserting a small ultrasound probe into the vagina or creating ultrasound images by scanning over the abdomen. Both approaches many be essential in detecting fibroids.
2. MRI scans: this is done to determine the size and number of fibroids.
3. Hysteroscopy: in hysteroscopy, a small device with camera attached to its end is used to examine the inside of the uterus. This is done by inserting the device into through vagina into the uterus via the cervix. A biopsy (i.e., aa tissue sample) can be taken to test for cancerous test.
4. Laparoscopy: a small lighted tube is inserted into a small incision in the abdomen to examine the outside of the uterus and surrounding structures. It is possible a biopsy is taken for test.
5. Hyster-o-sonogram: a small catheter is placed inside the uterus, then water is injected while ultrasound images are taken simultaneously. This test helps to confirm if there is a presence of uterine polyps or intracavity fibroids which van cause bleeding.
6. Hyster-o-salpingogram (HSG): this is used for women having difficulty getting pregnant. It checks the fallopian tubes and the inside of the uterus or uterine cavity. A small tube is placed inside the uterus, a special dye is slowly injected for contrast, then X-ray is taken.


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Stroke: Symptoms and Types

What is Stroke?

Stroke happens when a blood vessel carrying oxygen and nutrient to the brain gets blocked by a clot or the vessel bursts or ruptures. When this happens, part of the brain does not get the blood (oxygen and nutrient) needed causing the brain cells to die. It is either called Brain Attack or Cerebrovascular accident.

Stroke is a life-threatening medical condition/emergency. Most strokes can be treated aside from a few that lead to disability or death. It can occur at any age, but there is an increase in getting a stroke as one gets older.

Symptoms of Stroke

The main symptoms of stroke can be any of this:

• The face drops to one side and the person is unable to smile.

• The mouth or eye are likely to drop.

• Inability to see clearly with one or the two eyes.

• Bowel or bladder control problem.

• Numbness in arm; inability to lift either one arm or both arms, or lifting the arms and keep it there.

• Great difficulty expressing or controlling their emotions.

• Slurred or garbled speech or inability to talk at all even when awake.

• Inability to understand what people are saying to them.

• Dizziness or loss of coordination.

• Severe or sudden headache.

Causes of Stroke or Risk Factor of Stroke

The general risk factor of stroke is:

• Old age

• Diabetes

• Being Male

• High Blood pressure

• No physical activity

• Sleep apnea

• Cardiovascular disease

• Unhealthy alcohol consumption

• Smoking or being exposed to second-hand smoking

• Using recreational stimulant drugs

• Overweight or obese

• Genetic trait

Types of Stroke


There are 3 main types of stroke

1. Ischemic Stroke: this occurs when an artery in the brain gets blocked or obstructed, thus preventing oxygen-rich blood from being delivered to the brain cells. There are different ways the artery can be blocked, they are

• The artery gets narrow over time due to cholesterol buildup that is called Plaque. When the plaque bursts, a clot is formed at that spot preventing blood from reaching the blood cells, depriving them of oxygen. The plaque’s surface is irregular and tiny bits of the debris can break and travel to the brain blocking blood vessels; depriving brain cells of oxygen-rich blood. It occurs in Thrombotic Stroke.

• The artery can block due to debris or clot travelling from the heart or another blood vessel. Embolus or embolism is a clot, an object which travels within the bloodstream or a piece of fatty material in the bloodstream obstructing the flow of blood in a blood vessel. It occurs in Embolic Stroke.

The blood clots which embolize starts from the heart. The major cause of this is Heart Arrhythmia also called Atrial Fibrillation, here the upper chambers of the heart, the atria do not beat in organized rhythm. The blood still flows to the heart lower chambers pumping it to the body, some of the blood that are along the inner walls form small blood clots. When these clots break, they embolize or travel to the brain blocking blood flow to that part of the brain causing stroke.

2. Hemorrhagic stroke: if a blood vessel leaks, it spills blood to the tissue making the brain cell stopped working. This bleeding or haemorrhage occurs because the blood pressure is high and poorly controlled weakening the wall of the artery over time. Blood can also leak from an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM), Aneurysm, an artery wall ballooning, congenital weakness, a congenital abnormality where there is an incorrect connection between an artery and vein. This bleeding can form a hematoma directly damaging brain cells and also causing swelling that puts increased pressure on the surrounding tissue. There are two types of Hemorrhagic stroke:

• Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic stroke: it is not that common. It causes bleeding in the area between the brain and the tissue covering it.

• Intracerebral Hemorrhagic stroke: this is the common type. It occurs when the tissue surrounding the brain gets filled with blood after an artery burst.

3. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): ever felt like a part of your body just suddenly feel numb, like double vision, dizziness, loss of balance? If yes, you just experienced a Transient Ischemic Attack. It is also called a Ministroke. This occurs when the blood flow to the brain gets temporarily blocked. The area of the body that is controlled by the portion of the brain affected does not function for that period in time. Most TIA often lasts for a few minutes. Nevertheless, it shouldn’t be taken with levity.

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Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Risks, Cure

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by an abnormally elevated level of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which over time leads to severe damage to the heart, eyes, blood vessels, kidneys and nerves. It can also be said to be a condition that impairs the blood glucose level.

It affects the way our body uses food for energy. When your body can not move sugar or glucose from your bloodstream into your cells, thus having excess sugar in your cells, this can be said to be diabetes. It leads to a buildup of sugar in the blood, which increases the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart diseases

Types of Diabetes

There are four major types of Diabetes. With Type 1 and Type 2 very similar, the remaining major types of diabetes are Gestational diabetes and Pre-diabetes.

The different types of diabetes in detail, causes, symptoms and effects;


1. Type 1 diabetes: this is also known as Juvenile diabetes. Type 1 is an immune system diabetes. The pancreas produces insulin, the body attacks and destroys the cell that produces insulin in your pancreas; once this is done, diabetes sets in since the body stops producing insulin (this is a hormone that is responsible for breaking down sugar in the bloodstream).

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes include:

• Increased urine

• High blood pressure

• Excess Thirst

• Nerve damage

• Fatigue

• Loss of weight

• Cardiovascular disease

• Hunger

• Skin problems

Risk factors for Type 1 Diabetes

• When there is a family history of Type 1 diabetes

• When there is an injury to the pancreas

• When the autoantibodies mistakenly attack the body’s tissues or organs

• Physical stress

• Getting exposed to an illness caused by viruses.

2. Type 2 diabetes: it is also known as Adult-onset diabetes and Insulin-resistant diabetes. Here the body either does not produce the right amount of insulin or the body does not respond normally to the insulin. In simple terms, your body still has a problem moving sugar into your cells, but your cells are not sensitive to insulin, and they can’t use the insulin the way it is meant to. It often occurs in middle-aged people, older people. You will hardly experience or notice any symptoms since they develop slowly over several years.


Risk Factors includes:

• Middle-aged or older people,

• Family history of Type 2

• History of smoking

• Being physically inactive

• History of heart disease or stroke

• Having high blood pressure

• Having low HDL cholesterol

3. Gestational Diabetes: this is a type of diabetes, developed in some women during pregnancy. It is an insulin-blocking hormone produced during pregnancy. It occurs when the pregnant woman blood sugar level is too high. It usually goes away after pregnancy. Women who experience Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy will take Oral Glucose Tolerance Test about six weeks after birth to know if diabetes continued after pregnancy. It causes Premature Birth, Increases Birth weight etc. Any woman who experiences Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy and uses insulin tends to have Type 2 diabetes after about a decade.

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes:

• Family History

• Overweight before pregnancy

• Over 25 years

4. Pre-diabetes: this is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as Type 2 diabetes. It is silent and the patient will not get any reinforcement to tell them that something is wrong with them.

Complications of Diabetes

1. Nerve damage causes numbing of fingers and toes and it is likely to spread

2. Kidney failure or damage

3. Retinopathy (eye damage that can lead to blindness, cataracts or glaucoma

4. Poor healing of cuts and wounds

5. Erectile dysfunction

6. Dementia

7. Dental problems

8. Stroke

9. Coronary disease

10. Atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) etc.

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Everything You Need To Know About Cyst

What is Cyst?

cyst is a structure on the skin that looks like a closed like sac, it is not a normal part of the tissue where it is seen. It is membranous tissue that contains fluid, air, or other kinds of substances. Often, they look more like blisters. The sac is filled with pus.

Cyst occurs anywhere and to anyone regards of age, background, religion, skin colour. They can be so tiny that can only be seen under a microscope; be so large that they displace normal organs and tissues; they vary in size. Often, most Cysts are asymptomatic and have no signs to indicate their development. 

Causes of Cyst

Many things cause the formation of a cyst. The major ones are:

Genetic conditions.
Cellular defects.
Chronic inflammatory conditions.
Errors in embryonic development.
Blockages of ducts in the body.

Types of Cyst


There are several types of Cyst, but I will be writing about a few of them

1. Epidermoid Cyst: these are small, benign (not harmful) bumps filled with protein keratin (yellowish sebum). They lead to swelling of the skin. 
2. Sebaceous Cyst: this is the type of cyst that occurs on the skin, face, scalp, scrotum or back. They are filled with sebum. They often form within the sebaceous gland which is part of the skin and hair follicles. The sebaceous gland provides oil for your skin, if it gets blocked or ruptured, it can lead to a sebaceous cyst.
3. Breast Cyst: when fluid gather around your breast glands. It is likely a benign cyst develop around your breast. They either cause pain or tenderness in the affected region. They must be well examined to ensure that they are benign cysts and not another kind of growth. They usually occur during the menstrual cycle and often disappear on their own. They most occur to women who are in their 30s and 40s.
4. Ganglion Cyst: occurs most times along a tendon sheath near the joint. They form around the joint area around your wrist or hand and can develop around your feet and ankles as well. They are harmless and the reason for formation is unknown. It is common in women than men.
5. Pilonidal Cyst: these forms at the top part of the buttocks (tailbone or lower back). They are filled with hair, body oils, skin debris etc. They are caused when loose hair is embedded in your skin. When it is chronic, they increase the risk of skin cancer that is called Squamous cell carcinoma. They can grow in a cluster thus creating a cavity or hole in the skin. They are also called jeep driver’s diseases.
6. Ovarian Cyst: this form when the follicle meant to release the egg does not open causing fluid build-up and forming a cyst. It can also be that the follicle releases the egg then closes improperly and collects fluid. It is common in women that have a regular period. It forms during ovulation. They cause no symptoms. If they occur after menopause, they increase the risk of cancer.

These are the remaining types of Cyst

1. Pilar Cyst
2. Mucous Cyst
3. Perineural (Tarlov) Cyst
4. Cystic Acne 
5. Baker Cyst 
6. Branchial Cyst

Symptoms of Cyst

Most of the small Cyst don’t show symptoms or signs of development as mentioned earlier, even at this some of them can very painful. The cysts that are associated with the internal organs might not show any sign if they are small, but if they are large and they if they compress or displace other organs or if they block the normal flow of fluid in the tissue like the pancreas, liver or another organ, then pain is inevitable and other symptoms that are related to those organs may develop.

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Weightloss To The Rescue: Obesity

What is obesity and overweight?

The word ‘Overweight’ can be used in two different ways. Sometimes it is referred to someone who is heavy. Other times, it is used when a someone is in between normal weight and obesity. Overweight and obesity can be defined as the accumulation of excessive or abnormal fat that may likely affects one’s health.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height used commonly to differentiate between overweight and obesity in adults. It can be defined as the weight of a person in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in meters (kg/m2). For an overweighed person, the BMI is 25 or above. An obese person, the BMI is 30 or above.

Causes of obesity and overweight


The main cause of obesity and overweight is when the energy between the calories consumed and the calories expended is imbalanced. On a global level, there has been:

an increase in the intake of energy-dense foods thatgives high fat and sugars; and
an increase in the rate of physical inactivity because of the increase in sedentary nature of the different types of work, different modes of transportation and increase in urbanization.
lack of supportive policies in sectors such as health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing, and education.

Common health consequences for overweight and obese people includes:

An increase in BMI is a one of the major risk factors for some noncommunicable diseases like:

heart disease and/or stroke (cardiovascular diseases);
musculoskeletal disorders (majorly osteoarthritis – a disease that disables and degenerate the joints);
some cancers this includes breast, endometrial, ovarian prostrate, gallbladder, colon and kidney.

The higher the BMI, the higher the risk of having these noncommunicable diseases.

Children with obesity have higher chance of having breathing difficulties, fractures, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, disability, psychological effects, andmay even die prematurely.

Also, double-burden of malnutrition which occurs majorly in low-income and middle-income countries also causes overweight and obesity.

These countries deal with infectious disease and undernutrition, while the issue of noncommunicable disease like obesity and overweight is growing rapidly under their nose.
Most places where undernutrition exist, obesity also exist.

Children in most low- and middle-income countries face the issue of malnutrition especially during pre-natal, infancy, and young childhood. These children eat meals that have high fat, sugar, salt, energy-dense, and micronutrient-poor foods which are lower in cost and nutrient quality. Compound with this, they tend to engage in low physical activity thus increasing childhood obesity.

Ways of reducing Obesity and Overweight

Overweight and obesity, and other noncommunicable diseases, can be prevented. When an individual has a Supportive environment and community, the person’s choice will be better shaped and they will make better choice when it comes diet, and physical activity thereby preventing overweight and obesity.

At the individual level, people can:

• limit energy intake from total fats and sugars;
increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts; and
engage in regular physical activity (60 minutes a day for children and 150 minutes spread through the week for adults).

The food industry can be of help by sensitizing the important role healthy diets plays and doing the following;

reducing the amount fat, sugar and salt in processed foods;
ensuring healthy and nutritious choices are affordable and available to everyone. that healthy and nutritious choices are available and affordable to all consumers;
stop the marketing of foods that are high in sugars, salt and fats, majorly the ones that are for children and teenagers, and
supporting people exercising regularly in workplaceand at home.

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